Saturday, September 12, 2009


projek microb dah distart enjin nya
sudah pun di panaskan enjinya
tunggu dia berjalan hingga sampai ke destinasi yang di tuju

tapi sebelum itu
kita kenal tuh apa tuh microbiology dan step yang ada untuk menjalankan projek ini

what is microbiology

Microbiology is the study of microorganisms - little, really little, critters (except for The Big One). And, please take a look at some relative sizes of different living cells at Jim Sullivan's Page: Cells Alive! These "bugs" include: bacteria (that's the Latin plural for bacterium); viruses (that's the non-Latin plural for virus - virii sounds weird, so I don't say it); and, fungi (that's the Latin plural for fungus - which by now you have guessed, or already knew, and may not be all that interested to know, anyway). Microbiology is actually made up of several sub-disciplines which individually may stand alone, because there is so much to learn in each. These disciplines include: Immunology (the study of the immune system and how it works to protect us from harmful organisms and harmful substances produced by them - is what I, Marci, and Larry work on; Virology, the study of viruses, and how they function inside cells - Marci does some of this, too; Pathogenic Microbiology, the study of disease-causing critters and the disease process - is what Eric does; Microbial Genetics, the study of gene function, expression, and regulation - is what Susan and Del do - although Del mostly examines mutations in genes and substances which appear to prevent mutations; Physiology, the study of biochemical mechanisms - is what Jim and Clarence do. I'll focus on bacteria right now, not because this group of critters is necessarily more interesting, but because I know very little about fungi, and because I don't want to talk about viruses just now.

Bacteria are absolutely necessary for all life on this planet - for every known ecosystem - including the human ecosystem! Without bacteria, there would be no life, as we call life, on the earth. However, it is a good thing that most bacteria die-out. Here is why: bacteria are single-cell organisms, that produce more of their kind by cell-division, alone. So, if one begins with a single bacterial cell like E. coli for example, in 20 minutes there will be two, and 20 minutes later, four, etc., E. coli cells. At this rate, even though most bacteria are several hundred-times smaller than we can see with our naked eye (never seen a clothed eye), in only 43 hours, from that one cell at the beginning, there would be enough E. coli to occupy the entire volume of the earth (1,090,000,000,000,000,000,000 cubic meters)! In only about two additional hours, these bacteria would weigh as much as the earth - 6,600,000,000,000,000,000,000 tons! Bummer! Luckily for us, most bacterial cells die because of the enormous competition for food, and because of other tiny organisms which produce substances (antibiotics) that kill them - you know, like penicillin, which is made by a particular fungus, the mold - Penicillium). Thank goodness for that one, huh? Actually, many antibiotics are made by certain bacteria too, and, we get many of our necessary vitamins and nutrients from bacteria by allowing the bacteria to multiply in number, and isolating the things that they make, that we cannot make. For example, amino acid supplements are available ("enriched" bread simply means that the amino acid, lysine, which we absolutely need, but cannot make ourselves, is added to the flour used to make the bread), to provide one additional source which most people will eat. This amino acid is produced by certain bacteria grown in huge vats (can be 20,000 liters at one time - that's about 1,500 gallons!), and purified for our use. Antibiotic production is similarly done.

With the advent of molecular genetics and recombinant DNA technology, bacteria now play a very important role as producers of human substances. Since we have learned how genes function, we are able to introduce a human gene into a bacterium and have the product of the human gene expressed. Consequently, a hormone called erythropoietin, which is absloutely necessary for the proper development of red blood cells (erythrocytes), but very, very, difficult to isolate, is now available in high quantity. People who do not have kidneys cannot make this hormone; however, because the hormone has been cloned into bacteria, plenty of this hormone can be made, purified, and given to these people. Human insulin can be similarly made. These are only two examples of the many substances now available to treat human disorders because of our understanding of bacteria.

Common Laboratory Techniques

During the course of these laboratory sessions, you will be expected to become proficient in the performance of the following laboratory techniques:

o Isolation of pure bacterial colonies

o Gram stain.

Development of competency in these techniques requires that you also know how to:

o Flame a loop

o Streak a plate for isolated colonies

o Use a light microscope.

Each person is responsible for his microscope and is expected to clean the oil immersion lens at the end of each lab in which it is used. First-year students share these microscopes and, as you may remember, do not appreciate having to clean the microscope before it can be used.

A short video that will be shown in the first laboratory session will reinforce the microscopic techniques you learned in first-year histology class and remind you of the correct way to use a microscope. It is expected that after the first laboratory session, each student will be able to focus on a stained bacterial preparation, find and identify the bacteria present on the slide. Students who do not feel comfortable using the microscope should ask for help from their sector instructors. Each microscope was cleaned and adjusted before the start of the course. If your microscope is not functional, report it to Julie Tippett in Student Affairs Office immediately after the laboratory session. Each student will need a functional microscope for each lab and to complete the final exam. You will not be given help in focusing your microscope during the final examination. Remember that bacteria are always viewed using the oil immersion lens (the 100X objective, which requires the use of oil). The high power objective (not oil immersion) will be used for the study of fungal morphology in Lab 5.

The methods on the following pages will be a useful reference for each laboratory session.

Aseptic Technique

Aseptic techniques will be used in these laboratories as is usual in the clinical lab. In the preparation of a microscope slide for staining and in plating a specimen for isolated colonies, it is necessary to observe the rules of aseptic technique to assure that contaminants are not introduced into a specimen. On a more personal note, adherence to aseptic technique assures that infectious agents are not spread to you, fellow students, or the laboratory surfaces.

The following general rules should be adhered to when working in the microbiology laboratory.

    1. The inoculating loop is usually used for making transfers of bacterial cultures. Instructions for the proper technique used to flame a loop with a Bunsen burner are provided on the following page. Allow the loop to cool sufficiently so that any organisms to be tested will not be killed by the hot wire, but do not allow the loop to contact anything during the cooling period or contamination will result.
    2. Learn to remove and replace the closures (usually caps) of the test tubes with the same hand that holds the loop. The caps must be held during the entire procedure and never placed on the desktop or contamination will result.
    3. After the transfer is completed the loop must be sterilized again. Follow the procedure outlined on the following page in Figs. 1-3 to prevent splattering of infectious materials.
    4. Always work sitting down.
    5. Attention to details and practice will allow you to work both rapidly and accurately.


Heat from the base of the wire first (Fig. 1) and slowly move towards the loop (tip) (Fig. 2). Heat the wire until it is red-hot (Fig. 3).

Remove caps from liquid specimens and replace the caps of the test tubes with the same hand that holds the loop. The caps must be held during the entire procedure, as shown below in Figures 4-6, and not placed on the desktop or contamination may result.

Flame the neck of the tube (as in Fig. 4). If using a plastic tube, flame briefly to avoid melting the opening of the tube. Remove a loop full of the culture with the cooled loop (Fig. 5) and briefly flame the opening of the tube again (Fig. 6).


Diagnostic bacteriology is concerned with the isolation and identification of bacteria in a specimen from a patient. These specimens, unless from a normally sterile site of the body, rarely contain a single bacterial type, but are mixtures of the disease-producing bacteria and the host's normal or indigenous flora. Since accurate studies of the biochemical and the antigenic properties of a bacterial species are possible only through the use of pure cultures, it is necessary to have a reliable and rapid method that will permit the isolation of possible pathogenic organisms. An inoculum from the specimen is streaked on solid agar in a manner, which physically separates most of the bacterial types, permitting them to form discrete colonies. This procedure is facilitated whenever possible by the use of either a selective medium that inhibits the growth of species not sought or by the use of a differential medium, which imparts a recognizable appearance to the colonies of the type sought. It is possible that colonies of the bacterial type selected for by the selective medium will be contaminated with bacteria of a different type that are inhibited from growing but not killed by the selective medium. Upon transfer of this mixed colony to a medium without the inhibitors, both types of bacteria may grow, and a pure culture will not be obtained. Consequently, it is often necessary to streak a second plate of the same selective medium with a colony from the first selective plate in order to obtain a pure culture of the bacterial species that you are attempting to isolate.

The method used most often for colony isolation from a clinical specimen or mixed culture utilizes the four-phase streaking pattern described on the following page.


Step 1. Using a sterile loop, streak cultures (liquid broth or isolated colonies picked from plates) over one-fourth of the surface of an agar plate. Then flame the loop as described on the preceding page.

Swabs containing an inoculum should be rolled over a small area of the agar surface to deposit the inoculum and then distributed over one-fourth of the surface with a sterile loop. The swab can then be used to prepare a stain or discarded.

Step 2. Air cool a flamed loop or cool it by touching an unstreaked area of agar on the same plate.

Step 3. Pass the cooled loop three or four times over the initial streaked portion of the plate. Streak it, without overlap, to the next quadrant.

Step 4. Flame the loop and allow it to cool as described above in Step 2.

Step 5. Pass the loop over the streaked portion of the second quadrant two or three times and then streak the material without overlapping over the third quadrant of the plate.

Step 6. Repeat Step 5 to streak the last quadrant.

Most bacteria do not move appreciably from the sites of inoculation but give rise there to clones of bacteria called colonies. Isolated colonies should arise in the third and fourth quadrants depending on the concentration of bacteria in the initial inoculum.


Some media support the growth of selective organisms (e.g. only gram-negative or only gram-positive). Growth on certain media gives preliminary information about specific biochemical characteristics (e.g. ferments or does not ferment a particular sugar) that lead to subsequent steps to take in the definitive identification of the organism.

In the laboratory sessions of this course, a variety of culture media will be utilized to aid in the growth and identification of the clinically important bacteria studied. In all instances, the media in the tube or plate is identified by a label on the tube or on the bottom (agar containing portion) of the petri dish. You are not expected to be able to identify any of the media introduced in these sessions without reading the label. It is expected that you are responsible for verifying the identity of all media before each use and inoculating it according to the protocols provided. A description of each of these media is provided in the text of the Lab session in which it is first introduced. A description of all media encountered in these lab sessions is available in Appendix 2, Culture Media and Biochemical Tests, of this laboratory manual.

Early preliminary information regarding a patient’s culture results can often be provided to the physician after observing the growth and colony morphology on a specific agar media.

Clinical microbiologists routinely make note of the colony characteristics of bacterial growth on agar plates. The success or failure of bacterial identification procedures often depends on the accuracy of the initial observation of colony characteristics. Some of the criteria frequently used to characterize bacterial growth on agar media include:

  • Colony size (using relative terms such as pinpoint, small, medium, large)
  • Colony color
  • Colony shape (describing the form, elevation, and edges of a colony)
  • Colony surface appearance (e.g. dull, opaque, moist/glistening)
  • Changes in agar media resulting from growth (e.g. hemolytic pattern on blood agar, changes in media or colony color due to a change in pH indicators, pitting of agar surface)
  • Odor (certain bacteria produce distinct odors)

Many of these criteria are subjective. In our laboratory sessions as in the clinical laboratory, careful determination of colony appearance is important but should not be the only criteria for making a preliminary identification. Notations in each Laboratory Section will be provided for colony characteristics that are useful in the identification of commonly encountered pathogenic bacteria including your unknown specimens. To take full advantage of these notations, it is important to spend some time viewing the demonstration plates provided for each lab and making note of the characteristics that are described in the text.


Importance of a Gram Stain

A Gram stain of a direct smear is a rapid, relatively inexpensive and productive way to initially screen for the presence of infectious agents in a patient specimen. Gram stains also play a key role in the characterization of organisms that have been cultivated in the laboratory.

In the UKMC laboratory, Gram stains are routinely done on all fluids from normally sterile sources, on all sputum samples, on aspirates submitted in a syringe or tube, and on all specimens submitted for anaerobic culture. Gram stains on other types of specimens are done on request only. Best results are obtained when the clinician prepares a slide directly from the clinical material to be submitted for staining. Swabs submitted in transport medium are not the best source for preparing smears to be Gram stained.

Gram Stain Priniciple

The Gram stain divides bacteria into two classes, gram-positive and gram-negative. The thick peptidoglycan layer of Gram-positive organisms allows these organisms to retain the crystal violet-iodine complex and stain purple. Gram-negative bacterial cell walls consist of a thinner layer of peptidoglycan and lose the crystal violet-iodine complex during the alcohol rinse. Gram-negative bacteria stain with safranin and appear red.

Most clinically important bacteria can be detected using the Gram stain. Exceptions are organisms that exist almost exclusively within host cells (e.g. chlamydia), those that lack a cell wall (e.g. mycoplasma and ureaplasma), and those too small to be resolved by light microscopy (e.g. spirochetes). Factors that may alter the true Gram reactivity of a bacteria include loss of cell wall integrity because of antibiotic treatment, age of the bacteria, action of autolytic enzymes, and as mentioned in Step 3 of Gram Stain Procedure, overheating the slide during heat fixation.

1) Crystal Violet

20 seconds

1) Wash

2 seconds

3) Gram's Iodine

One minute

4) Decolorize With Alcohol

10-20 seconds

5) Wash

2 seconds

6) Safranin

20 seconds

7) Wash

2 seconds

8) Blot Dry

Gram Stain Procedure

  1. Use a sterile slide or pass one side of a clean glass slide through a flame several times. Allow the slide to cool before smearing with a specimen.
  2. For bacterial suspensions in broth: Apply 1 loop of broth onto the cleaned slide. Dilute heavy suspensions by applying less than one loop to a drop of sterile water or saline on the slide. Spread the fluid to form a film about one centimeter in diameter. Excessive spreading may result in disruption of cellular arrangement. A satisfactory smear will allow examination of the typical cellular arrangement and isolated cells.

For bacterial colonies: Use water or saline to emulsify a colony or portion of colony on the previously flamed side of the slide. Only a very small amount of material from an isolated colony is needed for a gram stain (a loopful of a colony is excessive).

For inoculum on swabs: Roll the swab over the cleaned surface of a glass slide. To avoid contamination of culture media, discard the swab used to make the slide and use a second swab containing the inoculum to inoculate media.

The most common flaw in smear preparation is application of too much material on the slide. Broth cultures with visible growth contain at least 106 bacteria/ml. Similarly, depending on size, one bacterial colony can be equivalent to 105 bacteria. Excessive material interferes with the passage of light through the specimen, prevents adequate decolorization, and interferes with the ability to view single cells and to determine the cellular arrangement present in the specimen or culture.

  1. Air dry and heat fix the slide by passing it through a flame two or three times.

DO NOT OVERHEAT the slide as protein in the specimen can coagulate and cellular morphology may appear distorted from excess heat.

  1. Using the slide holder provided (it looks like a big clothespin), clamp the slide and suspend it, with specimen side up, over the sink. Flood the slide with crystal violet and allow it to remain for 1 minute. Rinse the slide gently with cold tap water.
  2. Apply Gram’s iodine and allow it to remain for 1 minute.
  3. While holding the slide at a slight angle, allow drops of alcohol to run over the smear (3-4 seconds). Quickly rinse well with water.
  4. Apply safranin and allow it to counterstain for 30 seconds. Rinse with water until all free stain is removed. Blot (DO NOT WIPE) the slide dry with bibulous paper.
  5. Examine the smear under oil immersion (you must use oil). NEVER determine the morphology or staining reaction of bacteria with any objective other than oil immersion.

Gram Stain Examination

Using the oil immersion lens, examine the smear for presence of bacterial cells. Note the Gram reaction (e.g. positive or negative), morphology (e.g. cocci or bacilli), and arrangements (e.g. single cells, pairs, clusters, or chains) of the cells seen. This information can provide a preliminary diagnosis regarding the infectious agent(s) and is used frequently to direct initial therapies for the patient.

A Gram stain of clinical material (the direct smear) should also be examined for the presence of inflammatory cells (phagocytes or PMNs) and epithelial cells. Inflammatory cells are indicators of an infectious process. In respiratory specimens, the presence of epithelial cells may be an indication of contamination with organisms and cells from the mouth (more information on the examination and interpretation of Gram stains of respiratory specimens will be given in Lab 4). The staining characteristics of host cells observed in a direct smear helps in determining if the smear has been correctly prepared and stained. Red and white blood cells do not stain with crystal violet and will appear pink.

Some organisms expected to be observed in Gram stains during this course are listed below with the expected Gram reaction, morphology, and frequent arrangements of each.

Gram-positive organisms (stain purple)

  1. Gram-positive cocci
    1. Staphylococci -spheres occurring in irregular clusters, singly, in pairs, or in short chains.
    2. Streptococci – round or oval-shaped usually occurring in pairs and short, or long chains. These cocci are generally slightly elongated.
    3. Pneumococci –resemble streptococci. Distal ends of paired organisms may be lancet shaped. In direct smears and sometimes from a culture, a halo (capsule) may be observed.
    4. Yeast- large ovoid to spherical forms often occurring in clusters. Budding forms may be observed.
  1. Gram- positive rods
    1. Corynebacterium- occur as straight or slightly curved rods. They vary greatly in dimensions and can occur in parallel, or "V", "L", and "Y" arrangements. Often referred to as diphtheroids.
    2. Bacillus spp. (aerobic spore-formers)- large, fat bacilli occurring singly, in pairs or chains. They frequently stain gram-variable (both pink and purple). Spores generally do not stain but appear clear and can give the bacilli a "moth-eaten" appearance.

3. Gram-negative organisms (stain red)

    1. Gram-negative bacilli

Examples: Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and Haemophilus spp.

The Gram-negative bacilli often have similar characteristics in the Gram stain; therefore, it is impossible to even presumptively identify them strictly on the basis of stained appearance. Generally, the Haemophilus can be coccoid or bacillary (sometimes short round-ended rods referred to as a coccobacillus) and the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. are larger and more elongated in shape.

    1. Gram-negative cocci

Spheres occurring singly and in pairs. Neisseria and Moraxella spp. often have a "coffee bean" shape where the adjacent surfaces of the pair are flattened.


Focusing Procedure

    1. Place slide on stage.
    2. Rotate the nosepiece to the 10X objective (low power lens).
    3. Using the coarse adjustment, lower the nosepiece to its lowest limit.
    4. Using the fine adjustment control knob, bring the image of the slide into focus.
    5. Swing the low power lens out of position; place a drop of immersion oil on the slide; swing the oil immersion lens (100X objective) into position.
    6. Focus with the fine adjustment knob.
    7. Raise the condenser as high as it can go to improve the image contrast.

Adjust the diaphragm

    1. Pull out the eyepiece.
    2. Look down through the barrel; close the condenser diaphragm until its edge can just be seen. The aperture of the condenser and objective are then approximately equal. This position gives the optimum optical image. Replace the eyepiece.

Cleaning the microscope

When finished, clean the oil immersion lens with lens paper. Never touch the lens with anything else. The lens paper can be moistened with lens cleaner if necessary.